In manufacturing wasted motion is any movement by a worker or machine in a work space that does not add value to the customer. It includes searching for instructions and tools, retrieving parts, making and modifying parts and rotating or twisting during assembly. Wasted motion reduces efficiency and increases wear and tear which causes injuries and breakdowns.
Since 1900 industrial engineers have made huge improvements in production efficiency by using assembly lines and time and motion studies to reduce the time and effort it takes for workers to do their work. This approach led to the modern industrial era of low cost, mass production, commodity goods.
In IT wasted motion is any effort by the IT team that does not add value to an internal or external customer. It includes things like working off old version of documents, fixing defects, creating documents instead of code, deploying software changes manually and waiting for a server.
Wasted effort is ultimately caused by uneven work flow and unreasonable demands.
In Lean production you reduce wasted effort by applying a process called 5S or CANDO. At first this approach doesn’t seem to apply to IT but when you translate it from a physical space to a virtual one it has a lot of value.
Sort or Clean up.
Remove everything not needed in the work space so you can find what you need easily. In IT you can apply this by regularly archiving old versions of documents in your file system and refactoring your software to make it easier to understand and change.
Streamline or Arrange.
Organize your work so that it flows smoothly and consistently without waste, defects or delay. Define your end to end business process from the customer’s point of view and track your work on a Kanban board. Work in small batches. Set up cross functional teams and keep them together. Use Scrum and XP. Use acceptance test driven design and development. Automate software builds, tests and deployments.
Shine or Neatness.
Review your work flow regularly to maintain standards. Build review steps into your business process. Get testers to review requirements and design before you build and get developers to review each other’s code before you deploy to test.
Standardize or Discipline.
Develop common standards and ways of working. Develop and use standard business processes, templates and coding standards. Develop checklists for code reviews and new accounts.
Sustain or Ongoing Improvement.
Use standard methods and continually improve them. Set time aside to write down your methods regularly, train new people in them. Encourage people to experiment with methods and improve them.
The dangers of over optimizing
In the service sector many companies have adopted an assembly line approach to cut costs so they can be more competitive. This approach often leads to a situation where you have to wait a long time for a service only to find that it doesn’t do what was promised and costs more than expected. When you follow up it’s common to get pushed from one person to another with no resolution to your issue and no updates on what’s going on. This happens because it’s possible for one step in the process to reduce costs by cutting staff so much that it increases time and costs for the customer and other steps in the process.
To avoid these problems we need to make sure that when we are reducing wasted time and effort in our own step we increase the value of the end to end business process to the customer not decrease it.